Chandrayaan 2 Landing highlights: PM Narendra Modi says India stands in solidarity with ISRO scientists

Prime Minister Narendra Modi addressed ISRO scientists at the ISRO Control Centre

By tech2 News Staff  •

08:28 (IST)

PM Narendra Modi: The learning from today will make us stronger and better

08:18 (IST)

PM said that India stands in solidarity with our scientists

08:07 (IST)

Here's where you can watch Prime Minister Narendra Modi's speech at the ISRO Control Centre

08:06 (IST)

Prime Minister Narendra Modi is here at the ISRO Control Centre

08:04 (IST)

Simulation from the Chandrayaan 2 command centre when the Vikram Lander began experiencing turbulence 

04:34 (IST)

PM Modi to address the nation at 8 am today Modi will address the nation from the ISRO Control Centre in Bengaluru at 8 am. 

03:52 (IST)

Let's hope the Vikram lander hasn't met the same fate the Israel's Beresheet mission did last year!   That's all for now, folks! Looks like we're going to have to wait a little longer to hear more.

03:13 (IST)

Here's another theory about the lander's status from YouTube star/gamer/programmer/astrophysicist Scott Manley

03:11 (IST)

Announcement from ISRO coming in Unfortunately, it isn't about the lander. The planned post-landing press conference has been cancelled. 

02:31 (IST)

Life is full of ups and downs - Modi to scientists While the lander module does appear to have crashed, Modi urges scientists not to lose hope.

02:30 (IST)

An astronomer offers a compelling theory for what could have happened.

02:25 (IST)

PM Modi give Dr K Sivan the 'I'll be proud of you either way' pat before addressing the anxious crowd.  Whatever has been accomplished so far is no small feat — it's an incredible serve to scientists, to the world, says Narendra Modi. Our (larger) mission will continue whether we get good or bad news, he added.

02:19 (IST)

What we know for sure so far "Vikram lander's descent was planned and decsent was normal till 2.1 km. After this, communication link between the lander and ground station was lost. ISRO is currently analysing the data," announced the ISRO chairman.  We saw the speed of descent was a little unexpected, as it seemed to speed up as it lost altitude. That's the deviation we saw on the graph.  

02:08 (IST)

Communication between the lander & orbiter has been switched on  That'll help keep the orbiter listening for any signal the lander may throw its way. Doesn't change the fact that ISRO is yet to confirm the status of the landing module. 

02:03 (IST)

None of the important faces here look happy here. *deep breath* 

02:01 (IST)

The room is getting restless at ISRO's command centre.  As the lander reached within a kilometre, communication appears to have stalled and ISRO's command centre is still waiting to hear from Chandrayaan 2's mission control. 

01:56 (IST)

It's not time to worry yet. ISRO is waiting for updates from mission control.

01:54 (IST)

Vertical descent next The fine breaking phase has now ended, with less than 5 minutes and 2.7 kilometres to go till touchdown!

01:45 (IST)

Lander module slowing down further by the end of the rough breaking phase. Almost towards the end of the descent, the lander is now moving at speeds less than 60 mps, with the intention of soft-landing on the surface at 0 mps. 

01:42 (IST)

"Brute" breaking underway 2 minutes and 20 seconds into the descent, the lander is expected to reduce the speed of the spacecraft with brute force, by 480 metres per second.

01:39 (IST)

Descent begins! The descent has now begun! Four of the module’s propulsion engines will be used in this first 'rough braking'.

01:38 (IST)

Applause erupts as the timer inches towards 00:00!

01:36 (IST)

Under 3 minutes to go before first leg of the landing module's descent.

01:27 (IST)

Prime Minister of India in the house! Modi appears to have reached the control room.  ​ (and just in time too! 10 minutes to descent.)

01:20 (IST)

Update on the Chandrayaan 2 orbiter The orbiter, which weighed 2,370 kg at the time of launch, gets 70% of its mass from fuel. It carried ~1,680 kgs of fuel for the road, and to make in-orbit adjustments over its year-long mission. 

01:17 (IST)

Scenes from the control centre Here are some images from the heart of ISRO's control centre in Bengaluru

01:16 (IST)

As Chandrayaan 2 mission engineers run final checks and monitor the lander, viewing gallery is filling up!  

01:07 (IST)

ISRO's livestream is now a-go!

01:06 (IST)

What has been the most significant Moon mission for NASA? NASA astronaut Jerry Linenger: Apollo 11 landing with Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins was fantastic! The Apollo 12 mission was good as well. But I think the most significant Moon mission for the US was Apollo 13. We didn't make it to the Moon then. On the way, we had an issue in the tank, part of the spacecraft that got blown out. But then we saw human ingenuity take over and keeping calm and working the problem in real time, getting all the astronauts back to Earth safely. It was probably NASA's greatest moment, as things didn't go according to plan but we were still able to get humans back to Earth.

00:57 (IST)

We're digging this Chandrayaan 2-inspired Tintin cover! 

00:52 (IST)

GSLV-MkIII has a lot to do with making the Chandrayaan 2 & Gaganyaan missions a reality  ISRO developed the GSLV MkIII with limited resources, limited cooperation from the world at large, strife from within, and a budget (of INR 160 Crores) that many space agencies would laugh at. This is nothing short of enviable. Here's how ISRO's heaviest rocket compares to some of the best in the world.

00:23 (IST)

On the 15 mins of Terror: How scary is this, really? (2/2) NASA astronaut Jerry Linenger: In this case of the Moon, there is no atmosphere. So, the Rover and Lander (modules) have to decelerate from a speed which roughly 25-30 times that of the fastest aircraft on land. If you are on the rover, you won't hear anything as there is vacuum of space there. So it's a kind of freaky wow kind of thing, to bring the lander down from that speed. It is well thought out and it's very autonomous.

00:21 (IST)

On the 15 mins of Terror: How scary is this, really? (1/2) NASA astronaut Jerry Linenger: It's the critical part! I am reminded of my own coming back from the orbit, when we were going at Mach 25, which is 25 times the speed of sound. When you are entering the Earth's atmosphere when the friction is high, so that's our 45 minutes of terror. We have to hit the runway at the Kennedy Space Centre in Florida, at a speed of 225 knots! But you have the atmosphere and friction to slow you down.

00:16 (IST)

From a bullock cart to the moon: A (very) brief history of ISRO All India Radio has put together a short clip that talks about ISRO's journey from its inception several decades ago.

00:12 (IST)

When we look down on Earth, we realise that we are all one: NASA astronaut Jerry Linenger Speaking about how space missions are unifying and aspirational, "I was with two Russian cosmonauts for five months. When we look down on Earth, we realise that we are all one. We have the same aspiration. We have the same humanness in us and we just want to move the mankind forward." 

23:57 (IST)

NASA astronaut and space analyst Jerry Linenger weighs in on what the landing means for the world! "I just want everyone to know that the whole world is following this and it is not just Indians. This is the first time any country is going to the South Pole of the Moon!" says Linenger on Nat Geo's live stream. "India is leading this and as a representative of the US, we are nervous and we are hoping for success. This increases the knowledge base of the Moon"

23:50 (IST)

ISRO confirms that the broadcast will start at 1.15 am Don't forget to tune in, folks!

23:43 (IST)

Jeff Bezos sends his best! "Rooting for team India. Good luck, India! #Chandrayaan2," he tweeted.

23:10 (IST)

What can we expect from the Chandrayaan 2 over the next 24 hrs? Tech2 Science reporter Kavya Narayanan gives you all the dope on what to expect tonight, including what Dr K Sivan means by '15 minutes of terror'

22:51 (IST)

Important timestamps to note for tonight's Vikram Lander touchdown 01.38 am: Start of landing module's rough braking and descent 01.48 am: Start of landing module's fine braking and descent 01.50 am: Start of local navigation around the landing site 01.52 am: First image of the Moon's surface to be beamed back to Earth 01.53 am: Vikram touchdown 03.53 am: Pragyan ramp deployment 04.23 am: Pragyan rover powers ON! 05.03 am: Solar panels on Pragyan rover are deployed 05.19 am: Pragyan Rover rolls on down to the moon's surface 05.29 am: Pragyan Rover touchdown! 05.45 am: Photograph of the Vikram lander by Pragyan

22:47 (IST)

A breakdown of the landing process This visual nicely explains the entire landing process, which is expected to start at 1.53 am.

22:42 (IST)

Set your alarms for 1.10 am Just as a reminder, ISRO's live video stream of the landing will begin at 1.10 am. The livestream will be available at this link.

22:38 (IST)

Three hours to go for the Vikram Lander touchdown CNBC TV18 is live at the ISRO Tracking Centre with the latest updates

22:17 (IST)

Anticipation & excitement from ISRO's control room right now is palpable!

22:14 (IST)

What do we know about the Pragyan rover? The Pragyan rover will leave the comfort of the Lander module at around 5.30 am tomorrow morning. The rover has a mission life of 14 Earth days (one Lunar day) and is expected to travel about 500 m over the course of those days. The two primary scientific instruments aboard Pragyan will study the mineral and chemical composition of the moon. It will also look for traces of water in the permanently shadowed regions of the moon. Nobody's been to the moon's south pole before and scientists are hoping that given its pristine nature, there might be clues to what the solar system was like in its early years.

21:50 (IST)

PM Modi is in Bengaluru Narendra Modi has landed at Bengaluru airport and is heading to the ISRO launch facility. 

21:40 (IST)

Selfie with a GSLV MkIII? Check!   It's a few years too soon till you and I can snap moon selfies on the moon, but in the meanwhile, we've got a mighty GSLV MkIII you put on your desk, on your lap, next to your cat, ot wherever else you want it.  Head here to take it for a spin: 

21:35 (IST)

Renowned sand-artist Sudarsan Pattnaik shared his wishes for Chandrayaan 2 in true sand-art style. We're loving it!

21:33 (IST)

"Experience of working for Chandrayaan 2 was very delightful" says scientist Nirbhay Kumar Upadhyay The excitement before the touchdown is palpable among the scientists who have worked on India's second Moon mission. 

21:29 (IST)

What expected over the next few hours? The Vikram lander is currently in a low orbit around the moon, gearing up for its final 15-minute flight to the surface of the moon. The actual landing will be fully-automated, and is planned for 1.40-1.55 am tonight.   The last leg of its descent will be unpowered – led by the moon's gravity and no engines. This is to ensure that the lander doesn't kick up a massive plume of dust. Dust can interfere with instruments and reduce the efficiency of the solar panels. Once a set of internal diagnostics are run, the rover Pragyan will exit the lander some four hours later, between 5.30 am and 6.30 am on the morning tomorrow.  We know what comes next, right?  #MoonSelfiiiiiiiieeeeeeeees!

21:20 (IST)

Pragyan Rover: All you need to know Pragyan is the third component of the Chandrayaan 2 mission.  It is a robotic vehicle that will traverse the lunar surface on six wheels that are painted in the colours of the tiranga. It is expected to travel at a speed of one centimetre per second and will hence travel a total distance of half a kilometre. The rover is powered by solar energy and will spend a total of 14 Earth days carrying out its scientific experiments. Read more about the Pragyan Rover.

21:16 (IST)

Vikram Lander: All you need to know The Vikram Lander is a module that will enable the delivery of the Pragyan Rover to the lunar surface while conducting a few experiments of its own. The rover will roll out once the lander has successfully landed at the desired spot. It also consists of several instruments or payloads that will be constantly carrying out experiments throughout its mission time. It’s named ‘Vikram’ to honour the late Dr Vikram Sarabhai, who was the former chairman of ISRO and is widely regarded as the ‘Father of the Indian Space Programme’. Read more about the Vikram Lander. 

21:08 (IST)

From liftoff to landing, the Chandrayaan 2 mission featured 7 "orbit-lowering" manoeuvres, which were critical to its success. Why were those necessary? In-orbit manoeuvres are critically important – somewhat like breaks in a car. These breaks themselves are called liquid apogee motors (which go by "thrusters"  in scifi). These tiny, powerful motors were fired up to adjust the altitude of the spacecraft and its speed while  already in orbit.

21:04 (IST)

Stunning images captured by Chandrayaan 2 of the moon! On 23 August 2019, from an altitude of almost 4,375 kilometres, the Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft returned photographs of the lunar surface. Among the features visible in these new images are prominent craters such as Jackson, Mitra, Mach, and Korolev. The images also include a wide view of the entire North Polar region from a distance.

20:49 (IST)

Chandrayaan 2 is show of India's potential, but there's still work that needs doing in India's space scene. A solid rethink of India's engineering education will benefit the space program immensely, according to some experts.

20:48 (IST)

Chandrayaan 2 is one of many interplanetary missions in ISRO's (near-future) pipeline... Among the destinations are Mars, the Moon, Venus, the Sun's corona, there's even an interplanetary mission planned to study the "space" between cosmic bodies itself!

20:17 (IST)

Lord Ganpati and Chandrayaan 2

20:10 (IST)

Here's a look at the inter-planetary missions that ISRO has planned after Chandrayaan 2

19:36 (IST)

Did you know when the moon is farthest from the Earth it is about 4,05,700 km away? The moon has an elliptical orbit which makes it quite close to Earth and sometimes quite far off. 

19:17 (IST)

Footprints on the moon will last forever and here's why The footprints of Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon's surface, are still there. As the moon doesn't have an atmosphere there is no wind to blow the footprints away.

18:39 (IST)

Your weight on the moon is 1/6th of that on the Earth! The Moon's surface gravity is weaker because it is far less massive than Earth. That is why planets such as Jupiter and Saturn have such a strong gravitational force due to their giant size.

18:23 (IST)

Here's some more information about the moon! The Moon orbits the Earth due to a gravitational force that the Earth exerts on it. However the Moon also has a gravitational force on our planet which causes the formation of tides in seas and oceans.

18:03 (IST)

Here's a video by ISRO explaining how the Pragyan rover was made

17:52 (IST)

How much do you know about the Moon? The moon, with a diameter of about 2,159 miles (3,475 kilometers), is bigger than Pluto. 

17:33 (IST)

Here are some of the important Moon missions that have contributed to our knowledge

17:18 (IST)

Here are all the future missions to the moon!

16:57 (IST)

Timeline of successful Moon missions Since Apollo 11 back in 1969 there have been several manned and unmanned missions to the moon. India's own Chandrayaan 1 was operational for 10 months.

16:51 (IST)

Nat Geo ropes in astronaut, space analyst Jerry Linenger to showcase Chandrayaan 2 soft-landing Former NASA astronaut Jerry Linenger, who spent five months in the orbiting Russian space station Mir before it was decommissioned, says that India's contribution towards space exploration over the years has been instrumental in unravelling some great discoveries in space science. You can check out the Nat Geo link here on Hotstar.

16:20 (IST)

Chandrayaan-2 landing The Chairman reviewed the mission's milestones so far, and points out the enormous accuracy required to make a soft-landing. "Out of 10.5cm/sec, if there's a one-second blunder in the mission, the spacecraft will miss the landing site by 7 degrees," he said.  Yikes!

15:54 (IST)

Chandrayaan 2 launch This Tomorrowland-style video of the Chandrayaan 2 launch gave us a peak behind the curtain. There are 1000s of people who work tirelessly and do not get any recognition. But without them this launch would not have been possible.  Have a look-see guys. It is pretty cool. 

15:24 (IST)

Glitch in the road The original date of the launch was postponed by a week after ISRO scientists found technical fault in a fuel connecting joint in the GSLV-MKIII rocket. But that did not deter them, ISRO made a few changes and off it went. You need to read more about it, i assure you. 

15:09 (IST)

When will get the first data from the Pragyan rover? Even as the rover rolls out on to the surface, the rover's external camera will be active, Dr K Sivan says. The scientific data, however, will only come through about 5.8 hours after the landing, he added.

14:35 (IST)

PM Modi on Chandrayaan 2 He wanted everyone to take part in this moment and watch the lander conduct its soft-landing on the moon. 

14:33 (IST)

PM Modi on Chandryaan 2 launch He has been tracking the progress since the launch and is very excited to witness it. 

14:32 (IST)

PM Modi on Chandrayaan 2 landing He is accompanied with 60 children who won the space quiz organised by ISRO

14:25 (IST)

Chandrayaan 2 launch India's second moon mission was launched on 22 July, which was not that long ago.  However, here's a refresher video that will get you caught up with all those facts and figures.

13:51 (IST)

Did you know?

12:34 (IST)

Chandrayaan 2 Lander's soft-landing will use a new configuration & means of operating thrusters  Separation from orbiter isn't a crucial part of the mission. For the Vikram lander to land softly in a controlled manner, and will use a new technique, with throttlable control over the engine's thrusters. This is something ISRO is attempting for the first time, says the chairman. 

12:15 (IST)

Chandrayaan 2 rover  Pragyan, the six-wheel rover has two instruments onboard that will help it in conducting its tests. Its main objective is to find out if water-ice exists permanently in the shadowed part of the moon.  Read up on the objectives and the missions of Pragyan here.

11:32 (IST)

Chandrayaan 2 rover  Pragyan is a solar powered, briefcase sized rover that will travel half a kilometer, during its stay, on the moon.

10:59 (IST)

Did you know? One day on the Moon lasts as long as 29.5 Earth days.

10:36 (IST)

What makes Chandrayaan 2 so special you ask? Well here's your answer.

10:31 (IST)

While a successful landing will make the entire nation proud and will be commendable on ISRO's part, Narendra Modi said it will be a "befitting tribute to Dr Sarabhai".

10:12 (IST)

The journey to greatness is rough Before Vikram was loaded onto the GSLV-MKIII and sent on its way, the lander had some structural damage. Read more about its problems and how ISRO pulled through here, 

10:04 (IST)

A super informative and visually pleasing introductory video on Vikram lander, by ISRO

09:40 (IST)

The main function of the Vikram lander is to carry the rover to the moon. But it will also conduct a few experiments of its own.  You can read all about the lander and its duties here. 

09:35 (IST)

This is the Vikram lander that will be soft-landing on the moon.  It has been named after Dr Vikram Sarabhai, the father of the Indian science program. The rover is tucked inside it and will roll out after it is given the 'All Clear' from the ISRO scientists on Earth. 

09:24 (IST)

Enjoy this funny li'l nugget from ISRO

09:14 (IST)

You definitely want to watch Vikram land on the moon LIVE and be a part of India's historic moment.  Read on to find out how you can do that.

09:06 (IST)

Hey guys,  The countdown for Vikram's landing has began. We at Tech2 are super pumped! You can read all about the Chandrayaan 2 mission on our dedicated site

Chandrayaan 2  landing date and time, news, latest updates: K Sivan confirms that lander was operating normally till about 2.1 km from the moon's surface. Communication with the landing module has since been lost. Data from Vikram's descent is being analysed by the Chandrayaan 2 mission control team at ISRO for clues to the lander's location, and its health.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi tweeted that he was at the ISRO centre in Bengaluru, joined by 60 children from all over the country that took part in ISRO's space quiz from August. They won the opportunity to witness the soft-landing of the Vikram Lander on the moon along with the PM of India. Modi has also been tracking Chandrayaan's progress over the past month and wanted everyone to witness this historic moment in Indian history.

This was India's second mission to the moon, but its first attempt at soft-land on the moon. The lander Vikram was expected to make its final descent by 1.55 am on 7 September. ISRO's chairperson K Sivan had described this as the most "terrifying" 15 minutes of the entire mission.

Chandrayaan 2 composite orbiting the moon before the lander's separation. Image: ISRO

The (surprising) underdog in these final hours, the mission's orbiter, is still healthy, ISRO confirmed. With a mission life of one year, the orbiter will orbit the moon and map the surface.

Some experts think the landing module didn't survive the landing, and might have crash-landed. But there's still no official word from ISRO about the lander's status.

This is the full Doppler curve, showing the #Chandrayaan2 Vikram lander start the descent burn and transition from the rough braking phase. It's not clear with how to interpret the wiggles at the end of that phase... Another reminder that space is hard! Don't give up @isro!

— Cees Bassa (@cgbassa) September 6, 2019

Pragyan rover

Pragyan, which means 'wisdom' in Sanskrit is the rover and the third component of the Chandrayaan 2 mission. The robotic vehicle that will have traversed the lunar surface on six wheels if the lander survived, was painted in the colours of the tiranga. It was expected to travel at speeds slower than a snail – one centimetre per second, with its maximum range being half a kilometre. The rover was equipped with two instruments to test the mineral and chemical compositions of the surface of the Moon along with the soil and rocks.

Chandrayaan 1 confirmed the presence of water on the Moon's surface. The rover will have studied the presence of water on the permanently shadowed parts of the Moon.

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