By Shreehari Paliath
Mumbai: In India, the army enjoys the highest level of "effective trust", followed by the Supreme Court (SC) and the high courts, according to a 2018 study. Political parties were at the bottom of a list of 16 elected and non-elected institutions and offices.
The study, covering eight states by Azim Premji University (APU) and Lokniti (Centre for the Study of Developing Societies), defines effective trust as the difference between percentage of respondents who opted for a “great deal of trust” at one end of the scale and “no trust at all” at the other.
The study, accessed by IndiaSpend, was conducted in 22 Assembly constituencies with 16,680 respondents. Nearly 77 percent respondents showed the most trust in the military, followed by 54.8 percent in the SC and 48 percent in the high courts.
On average, elected offices and institutions such as the president, prime minister, chief minister, Parliament, Vidhan Sabha (state legislature) and panchayat/municipal corporation (MC) enjoyed an “effective trust” of 40 percent.
But there are wide variations within these categories across the eight states.
All states do not concur
Maharashtra showed high levels of trust, over 60 percent, in elected institutions – Parliament, Vidhan Sabha, panchayat/MC – while Andhra Pradesh (AP) showed the least level of trust, with Parliament and Vidhan Sabha garnering -4 percent and -2 percent of “effective trust”, as per the report.
“We also find that both rural and urban local level elected officials play increasingly important roles in providing services to their constituency and this likely influences citizens’ public opinion relating to elected officials,” Siddharth Swaminathan, co-author of the study and a faculty at APU, told IndiaSpend.
Maharashtra showed nearly 53 percentage points more trust in elected offices and institutions than AP. Jharkhand (52.5 percent) and Chhattisgarh (49.5 percent) followed Maharashtra in the rankings.
People have sub-zero levels of trust in political parties
Political parties garnered low trust, at -1.75 percent. With the exception of Maharashtra polling the highest trust at 31 percent, the other seven states either polled single digit or negative percentage trust. Political parties polled the lowest in the list of 16.
About 73 percent Indians have shown confidence in their government in 2016 as against 30 percent Americans, according to Government At A Glance 2017, a report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, IndiaSpend reported on 14 July, 2017. The confidence level in government has actually declined from 82 percent in 2007.
The average “effective trust” in parliament was 36.6 percent in the eight states surveyed. A similar study by CSDS conducted in 2013 indicated that 56 percent people trust the parliament in varying degrees; this was 43 percent in 2005, Firstpost reported on 6 October, 2015.
Courts trusted, but less so now than before
The study found significant trust in the judiciary. It observed a steady decline in average trust levels in the SC to high courts to district courts across all states, except AP where 28 percent stated trust in the district courts. The SC and high courts enjoyed 21 percent and 20 percent trust, respectively, in AP.
In the other seven states, the SC and high courts enjoyed an average “effective trust” of 60 percent and 52 percent, respectively.
Of the top five institutions that enjoy high levels of trust, four operate at a distance from citizens, the study said.
"An obvious reason for differences in trust between institutions closer to citizens compared to distant ones is that citizens have routine interactions with institutions that are closer (district courts, the police, government officials),” said Swaminathan.
Additionally, there could also be spillover effects – citizens who trust one set of institutions are more likely to trust another set related to it. This may have very little to do with specific policy output, said Swaminathan.
The office of the district collector, one who is more likely to be approached or connected with the issues of everyday citizenship, is the only outlier. She/he garnered 47 percent “effective trust”, coming fourth in the list after high courts.
Maharashtra polled the highest at 69 percent, 45 percentage points more than AP.
Govt officials and police rank only above political parties
Police and government officials rank only above political parties on the list.
Government officials (collector and tehsildar have been listed separately) scored 4.8 percent trust while the police manage only 0.9 percentage points more. This can be attributed to the politicisation of these spheres, the lack of transparency in their functioning, and corruption in the last decades, according to the report.
As many as 1,629 cases of corruption were reported in India – in which 9,960 people were involved or 11 every day – under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988, over two-and-half years ending 30 June, 2017, IndiaSpend reported on 30 October, 2017. India was ranked 79 of 176 countries, scoring 40 on the “Corruption Perception Index 2016” released in January 2017, by Transparency International, a global advocacy on corruption.
Media can also influence public opinion about institutions, said Swaminathan. Certain institutions such as the election commission are more likely to be favourably covered than say, the police, he pointed out.
The number of senior government officials involved in public corruption cases investigated by state agencies has increased 95 percent over the past five years, said this 2015 IndiaSpend report.
The author is an analyst with IndiaSpend.
Updated Date: Jul 13, 2018 11:40 AM