Yamaha's French rider is joined on the front row of Sunday's race in Montmelo by Australian Jack Miller's Ducati and Johann Zarco on Ducati's satellite Pramac bike.
The French Yamaha rider took pole in style, lowering the record Bagnaia set only hours earlier, with a new fastest time at the circuit of 1min 45.187sec.
Miller, who won the last race in Spain, finished ahead of French pair Johann Zarco, riding for Ducati's satellite Pramac team, and Fabio Quartararo, on a Yamaha.
Miller, who underwent surgery early in April, took the lead when pre-race championship leader Fabio Quartararo started to lose pace midway through the race.
Francesco Bagnaia on another Ducati came third on his first ride in the factory team after starting on pole, beating reigning champion Joan Mir of Suzuki back into fourth in the final moments of the race
MotoGP 2021: Ducati's Francesco Bagnaia takes first pole of season in Qatar pipping Fabio Quartararo
Another Yamaha rider, Spaniard Maverick Vinales completed the front row after nudging out Italian veteran Valentino Rossi of Yamaha satellite team SRT, late in the session.
Dovizioso, who turns 35 on 23 March, began his career in 2000 racing 125cc bikes for Aprilia. He reached MotoGP in 2008 winning 15 races and finishing runner up in the championship for three straight seasons from 2017-19 with Ducati.
Manufacturers Honda, Ducati and KTM have also signed on with Moto GP until 2026.
Based in Bologna, Italy, Ducati entered MotoGP in 2003, securing the riders' world title with Casey Stoner in 2007.
The Multistrada 950 S will compete with the likes of the BMW F 850 GS, Triumph Tiger 900 GT and the BMW 900 XR in India.
MotoGP 2020: Ducati's Danilo Petrucci vrooms to victory at Le Mans as Fabio Quartararo retains championship lead
At the rain-hit French MotoGP at Le Mans, Danilo Petrucci, riding for Ducati, won for only the second time from 146 MotoGPs.
Marc Marquez is the reigning MotoGP world champion. But he will not be able to make a bid at defending his title as he will be sidelined for another two to three months after fracturing his right arm in July's season opener.
Dovizioso avoided a string of crashes and narrow escapes notably that of Yamaha's Franco Morbidelli and Frenchman Johann Zarco.
MotoGP: Massive shuffles, cramped calendar — off-season developments that can impact 2020, 2021 seasons
The 2020 MotoGP season is special in so many ways - it is a season like no other, and hopefully, this spirit will translate into unprecedented on-track action as well.
MotoGP: Ducati rider Andrea Dovizioso expected to be fit for start of season after undergoing surgery on collarbone
Dovizioso sustained the injury on Sunday in a crash while competing in a motocross race at Faenza in northern Italy
Ducati to resume operations at Borgo Panigale factory in Italy today; workshop staff to start work first
Ducati's restart could allow the firm to reduce at least in part the negative effects of the lockdown that occured at the 'worst time'
Luxury motorcycle brand Ducati India on Wednesday said it has deferred price hike on extended warranty till 31 May, 2020
Harley Davidson Fat Boy to Ducati Scrambler Icon: Here are discounts of up to Rs 5.5 lakh on premium bikes in India
The Harley-Davidson Forty-Eight special is offered with a 1,202cc Evolution V-Twin engine that makes 97 Nm at 4,250rpm.
Phillip Island is one of Marc Marquez's favourite places and the already-crowned MotoGP world champion has no intention of easing up this weekend in Australia, where he lays claim to a bizarre record.
MotoGP world champion Marc Marquez will eye his tenth win of the season after snatching pole position on Saturday in Japan.