Before 1833, at least seven million fur seals were killed in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic.
For sea ice to build up again this year, the upper layer of the Arctic Ocean needs to lose the excess heat it picked up during summer.
Records show Arctic sea ice in October was at its lowest and isn't recovering as fast find new study
Water temperatures in the eastern part of the Arctic, north of Siberia, was two to four degrees warmer than normal, and in the Baffin Bay, it was one to two degrees warmer.
With some 100 members – scientists, technicians and crew, the expedition the largest Arctic science expedition in history.
Recent years has seen Antarctica experienced a steady increase in sea ice, even as the Arctic has seen a marked decrease.
The Arctic report, in its 13th edition, explains changes, impacts of melting on the ecosystem & marine life.
The ice loss in the East is more recent, smaller compared to those of glaciers in West Antarctica.
Arctic temperatures have spiked to reach unusually high levels. Weather monitoring buoys near the north pole recorded temperatures 30 degrees above normal.
A community in Quebec's Far North is calling for outside help to free about a dozen killer whales trapped under a vast stretch of sea ice.