Timeline: Tracing the failed ceasefire efforts in Gaza so far
Below is an outline of international efforts to press for a truce in the war-torn Gaza Strip since the latest conflict began.
Gaza City: Below is an outline of international efforts to press for a truce in the war-torn Gaza Strip, as Israel's offensive Protective Edge against the Palestinian enclave enters its fourth week:
- 9th: A day after Israel launches its offensive, Egypt, which played a key role in mediating past ceasefires between the Palestinian Islamist movement Hamas and the Jewish state, urges the two sides to halt their escalating conflict but plays down hopes of a Cairo-mediated truce.
- 10th: UN chief Ban Ki-moon appeals for an immediate ceasefire at an emergency meeting of the Security Council.
US President Barack Obama tells Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu he is willing to offer US help to broker a ceasefire.
Russian President Vladimir Putin issues a plea for a ceasefire in a phone call to Netanyahu.
- 12th: Security Council urges a return to a November 2012 ceasefire, brokered by former US secretary of state Hillary Clinton and Egypt that ended eight days of Israeli airstrikes on Hamas-rule Gaza.
- 13th: Pope Francis appeals for peace in Gaza during his weekly Angelus prayer, calling for "concrete gestures to build peace". Washington and European countries renew calls for a ceasefire.
- 14th: Egypt proposes a ceasefire to start at 0600 GMT the next day. Israel accepts it, and respects it for six hours, before resuming its raids. Hamas rejects it, demanding an end to the eight-year Israeli blockade of Gaza.
- 17th: Israel and Hamas agree to observe a five-hour humanitarian ceasefire requested by the UN, but hostilities then resume and the Israeli army launches the ground phase of its campaign, which had been limited to air, artillery and naval strikes.
- 20th: Security Council calls for an "immediate ceasefire".
In Gaza, a brief humanitarian truce at the request of the International Committee of the Red Cross takes effect after what was the deadliest phase of the offensive.
- 21th: Obama sends Secretary of State John Kerry to Cairo to seek an end to the fighting. Kerry promises $47 million in aid to Gaza.
Russia calls for "urgent concerted action by the international community", while the Arab League urges Hamas to accept Egypt's ceasefire plan.
Palestinian president Mahmud Abbas meets exiled Hamas chief Khaled Meshaal in Qatar to discuss a ceasefire.
- 22th: Ban visits the West Bank and Israel and tells both sides: "Stop fighting, start talking". Kerry, in Cairo, urges Hamas to accept a ceasefire.
- 24th: Visiting Jordan, Abbas says there is "hope for a ceasefire".
- 25th: Kerry and Ban press for a seven-day truce, as Israel and Hamas agree to stop fighting for 12 hours.
- Turkey's Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu meets Meshaal in Doha to help efforts to broker a ceasefire.
- 26th: The first day of calm since the operation was launched. Foreign ministers from eight countries or entities call for an extended truce. Israel accepts the proposal, Hamas does not.
- 27th: Israel says it is extending a lull in its operation in Gaza for another 24 hours, but Hamas said it will resume its cross-border rocket fire.
- Obama phones Netanyahu -
- 28th: Obama phones Netanyahu to demand an "immediate, unconditional humanitarian ceasefire", in a call echoed several hours later by the Security Council.
However, Netanyahu warns it will be "a lengthy campaign" that will not end before troops destroy cross-border tunnels used for staging attacks inside southern Israel.
- 29th: The Palestinian leadership along with Hamas and Islamic Jihad are willing to observe a 24-hour ceasefire, a senior Palestine Liberation Organisation official says, but there is no confirmation from the Islamist movement.
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