Hamilton finished about .3 seconds ahead of his Mercedes teammate Valtteri Bottas and around .4 clear of Red Bull's Max Verstappen.
Verstappen in his Red Bull was .26 ahead of Hamilton and .37 ahead of Hamilton's Mercedes teammate Valtteri Bottas.
For Racing Point's Lance Stroll, this was the first pole position of his Formula One career. His teammate Sergio Perez was third.
Formula 1 2020: Racing on slick Turkish GP track was 'terrifying,' says Mercedes star Lewis Hamilton
Hamilton, who is seeking to seal a record-equalling seventh world title in Sunday's race, said his day's practice had been "a little bit of a disaster" at the Istanbul Park circuit.
Racing on the track where his childhood idol Ayrton Senna lost his life, Hamilton finished 0.097 seconds behind Bottas' time of 1 minute, 13.609 seconds.
Hamilton’s Mercedes team-mate and nearest title rival Valtteri Bottas was third, nearly half a second off the pace, ahead of Pierre Gasly of Alpha Tauri and Ferrari’s Charles Leclerc.
Formula 1 2020: Lewis Hamilton wins Portuguese GP to vroom past Michael Schumacher into record books
British driver Lewis Hamilton won his 92nd career race to move one ahead of German great Michael Schumacher.
Formula 1 2020: Lewis Hamilton pips Mercedes teammate Valtteri Bottas to pole position in Portuguese GP qualifying
In denying his Mercedes teammate Valtteri Bottas in the final seconds of qualifying Hamilton moved to within three of his 100th career pole.
Albon has struggled for consistency in his second year in Formula One with Red Bull after a mid-season switch from Toro Rosso last year, his rookie season.
After leading Friday's two practice sessions, the Mercedes driver was .03 seconds quicker than teammate Lewis Hamilton and .16 ahead of Red Bull's Max Verstappen.
French driver Pierre Gasly's car caught fire on Friday while there was a crash between Red Bull's Max Verstappen and Lance Stroll's Racing Point car.
Lewis Hamilton and Mercedes seek to continue their record-making progress as Formula One escapes in search of some autumnal sunshine at this weekend's Portuguese Grand Prix.
In a touching tribute, Mick Schumacher presented Hamilton with one of his father's race helmets after he equalled the senior Schumacher's 91 wins.
"I don’t think we need to be in on Fridays," said Lewis Hamilton.
Formula 1 2020: Red Bull's Max Verstappen says he 'did not expect' to secure second spot in Russian Grand Prix grid
Verstappen added that he felt he has a good chance to attack six-time champion Hamilton at the start and to take advantage of his different tyre strategy.
Formula 1 2020: Lewis Hamilton grabs Russian GP pole, inches closer to Michael Schumacher’s all-time record
Hamilton's Mercedes teammate, Valtteri Bottas, was beaten into third by Verstappen's fast run at the end of the session and was .652 off Hamilton's time.
Victory for Hamilton at the Sochi Olympic Park would see him draw level with Michael Schumacher on 91 career wins, more than any other driver in the 70-year history of F1.
Formula 1 2020: Lewis Hamilton grabs 95th career pole in Tuscan GP qualifying as Mercedes lock front row out
Bottas had been fastest in all three practice sessions, but he was unable to maintain his superiority over Hamilton in the decisive hour.
Formula 1 2020: Valtteri Bottas hails 'fun' Mugello circuit after dominating Tuscan Grand Prix practice
Bottas clocked a best time of one minute and 16.989 seconds around the spectacular 5.245km Ferrari-owned Mugello circuit, two-tenths quicker than championship leader Lewis Hamilton with Max Verstappen a familiar third for Red Bull.
Formula 1 2020: Lewis Hamilton claims pole position in Italian GP qualifying, Valtteri Bottas takes second
It was Hamilton’s record-increasing 94th career pole position, his sixth in seven races and his seventh in Italy.