Defending champion Barty defeated the former French Open champion from Latvia 6-3, 6-2 to set up a fourth-round clash with former world number one Victoria Azarenka.
The top-ranked Barty rallied from a big third-set deficit and overcame a match point to win her opening match against qualifier Kristina Kucova, 6-3, 4-6, 7-5.
Brisbane International: Karolina Pliskova, Elina Svitolina storm into quarter-finals in emphatic fashion
Second seed Karolina Pliskova took just 54 minutes to beat American Catherine Bellis 6-1, 6-1.
Muguruza needed just 62 minutes to get past the fifth-seeded Croatian, breaking Konjuh's serve five times and never trailing in their first career meeting.
Here are some off-court highlights from Day 7 of Wimbledon 2017
Wimbledon 2017: Garbine Muguruza stuns top seed Angelique Kerber, Venus Williams storms into quarters
Muguruza, the 2016 French Open champion, beat Kerber 4-6, 6-4, 6-4 in the fourth round on Court No 2.
Here are some photo highlights from Day 5 of Wimbledon 2017
Victoria Azarenka will be playing her first Grand Slam since taking time off after last year's French Open to have her first child in December.
With Serena on maternity leave since winning the Australian Open, the door has been open for a bunch of new names to barge through at Wimbledon.
Victoria Azarenka took time out of the game to give birth to her first child Leo in December last year
French Open 2017: Jelena Ostapenko's Roland Garros victory signals arrival of next generation of stars
Jelena Ostapenko, the lowest-ranked Roland Garros champion in tournament history, bludgeoned her way to the title in a manner much befitting her idol, Serena Williams.
Dubai Tennis Championships: Angelique Kerber stays on target for top spot, faces Elina Svitolina in semis
Angelique Kerber hammered out a 6-3, 6-2 defeat of Ana Konjuh on Thursday to stay in contention for a return to the top WTA ranking at the Dubai Tennis Championships.
American Lauren Davis won her first WTA title by defeating Croatian teenager Ana Konjuh 6-3 6-1 in the Auckland Classic final on Saturday.
World number one Serena Williams fended off spirited Simona Halep on Wednesday, downing the fifth-seeded Romanian 6-2, 4-6, 6-3 to reach the US Open semi-finals.
Wimbledon champions Andy Murray and Serena Williams again take center stage Wednesday, when the US Open semi-final lineup will be completed.
If Andy Murray has been the best player on the men's circuit, Serena Williams has been just as good among the women
US Open 2016: From Serena Williams' 308th win to Ana Konjuh's stunner, headlines and numbers from day 8
US Open headlines and sidelines on Monday, the eighth day of the 2016 tournament at Flushing Meadows.
Teenager Ana Konjuh stunned 4th-seed Agnieszka Radwanska 6-4, 6-4, avenging a bitter Wimbledon disappointment and reaching the quarter-finals of the US Open.