NASA's Ingenuity helicopter spends its first night in frigid Martian temperatures
The first flight will see it climbing to a height of three meters, hover there for 30 seconds and then descend.
NASA's Ingenuity mini-helicopter has survived its first night alone on the frigid surface of Mars, the US space agency said, hailing it as "a major milestone" for the tiny craft as it prepares for its first flight. The ultra-light aircraft was dropped on the surface on Saturday after detaching from the belly of the Perseverance rover, which touched down on the Red Planet on 18 February. Detached from the Perseverance, Ingenuity had to rely on its own solar-powered battery to run a vital heater to protect its unshielded electrical components from freezing and cracking during the bitter Martian night, where temperatures can plunge as low as minus 90 degrees Celsius.
Making it through the frigid Martian night was "a major milestone for the small rotorcraft," NASA said in a statement Monday.
"This is the first time that Ingenuity has been on its own on the surface of Mars," said MiMi Aung, Ingenuity project manager at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
"But we now have confirmation that we have the right insulation, the right heaters, and enough energy in its battery to survive the cold night, which is a big win for the team. We're excited to continue to prepare Ingenuity for its first flight test."
Safe & sound on the surface of Mars: the #MarsHelicopter, Ingenuity, has survived the first cold night on its own, a major milestone for the small rotorcraft because surface temps can plunge as low as -130 degrees F (-90 degrees C). https://t.co/IqrL757Peg pic.twitter.com/MkSe1UNLKG
— NASA JPL (@NASAJPL) April 5, 2021
Over the coming days, Ingenuity will undergo tests of its rotor blades and motors.
If all goes well, Ingenuity is expected to make its first flight attempt no earlier than the evening of April 11, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory said.
It will be the first aircraft to attempt powered, controlled flight on another planet.
Tribute to Wright brothers
Ingenuity is carrying a small piece of cloth that covered one of the wings of the Wright brothers' first aircraft which achieved the first powered flight on Earth at Kitty Hawk in 1903, to pay tribute to the milestone.
Its attempt will also coincide with the 60th anniversary of the first human space flight, by Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on 12 April 1961, and 40th anniversary of the 12 April 1981 launch of the first space shuttle, Columbia.
Ingenuity will be attempting to fly in an atmosphere that is one percent the density of Earth's, which makes achieving lift harder -- but will be assisted by gravity that is one-third of our planet's.
The first flight will involve climbing at a rate of about one meter per second to a height of three meters, hovering there for 30 seconds, then descending back to the surface.
Ingenuity will be taking high-resolution photography as it flies from its "airfield" in the Jezero Crater.
A series of flights are planned over its mission lasting 30 Martian sols (31 Earth days).
"Our 30-sol test schedule is frontloaded with exciting milestones," said Teddy Tzanetos, Ingenuity deputy operations lead. "Whatever the future holds, we will acquire all the flight data we can within that timeframe."
The 1.8-kilogram rotorcraft cost NASA around $85 million to develop and is considered a proof of concept that could revolutionize space exploration.
Future aircraft could cover ground much quicker than rovers, and explore more rugged terrain.
The actual helicopter floated in the air for less than a minute, but you can see it for as long as you want on the Google version.
Tianwen-1 will use a laser range finder to work out where it is relative to Martian terrain and microwave sensor to determine its speed more accurately.
A glitch associated with its "watchdog timer," which alerts it to potential problems, pauses its processes if it thinks it has detected an error.