By Mari Yamaguchi
Until recently, the location of executed wartime Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo’s remains was one of World War II’s biggest mysteries in the nation he once led.
Now, a Japanese university professor has revealed declassified US military documents that appear to hold the answer.
The documents show the cremated ashes of Tojo, one of the masterminds of the Pearl Harbour attack, were scattered from a US Army aircraft over the Pacific Ocean about 30 miles (50 kilometres) east of Yokohama, Japan’s second-largest city, south of Tokyo.
Above: In this 7 December, 1941, file photo, smoke rises from the battleship USS Arizona as it sinks during a Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The declassified US military documents show the ashes of seven executed war criminals, including wartime Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, were scattered at sea off Yokohama from a US army plane. (Photo via The Associated Press, File)
It was a tension-filled, highly secretive mission, with American officials apparently taking extreme steps meant to keep Tojo’s remains, and those of six others executed with him, away from ultra-nationalists looking to glorify them as martyrs. The seven were hanged for war crimes just before Christmas in 1948, three years after Japan’s defeat.
The discovery brings partial closure to a painful chapter of Japanese history that still plays out today, as conservative Japanese politicians attempt to whitewash history, leading to friction with wartime victims, especially China and South Korea.
Above: Former Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo is pictured at Omori prison camp near Tokyo where war criminals are interned in Japan, on 2 October, 1945. (Photo via The Associated Press/Julian C Wilson)
After years spent verifying and checking details and evaluating the significance of what he’d found, Nihon University Professor Hiroaki Takazawa publicly released the clues to the remains’ location last week. He came across the declassified documents in 2018 at the US National Archives in Maryland. It’s believed to be the first time official documents showing the handling of the seven war criminals’ remains were made public, according to Japan’s National Institute for Defense Studies and the Japan Center for Asian Historical Records.
Hidetoshi Tojo, the leader’s great-grandson, told The Associated Press that the absence of the remains has long been a humiliation for the bereaved families, but he’s relieved the information has come to light.
Above: (LEFT) Professor Hiroaki Takazawa of Nihon University, speaks during an interview with the Associated Press in Chiba, near Tokyo on 8 June, 2021. Takazawa has revealed declassified documents showing executed wartime Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo's cremated ashes were scattered from a US army aircraft over the Pacific Ocean about 30 miles (50 kilometres) east of Yokohama, Japan’s second-largest city. (Photo via The Associated Press/Koji Sasahara) | (RIGHT) Hidetoshi Tojo, speaks during an online interview with The Associated Press, regarding his great-grandfather, Japan's wartime Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, in Tokyo on 9 June, 2021. Hidetoshi Tojo told The Associated Press that the absence of the remains has long been a humiliation for the bereaved families, but he's relieved the information has come to light. (Photo via The Associated Press)
“If his remains were at least scattered in Japanese territorial waters ... I think he was still somewhat fortunate,” Tojo said. “I want to invite my friends and lay flowers to pay tribute to him” if further details about the remains’ location becomes available.
Hideki Tojo, prime minister during much of World War II, is a complicated figure, revered by some conservatives as a patriot but loathed by many in the West for prolonging the war, which ended only after the US atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
About a month after 15 August, 1945, when then-Emperor Hirohito announced Japan’s defeat to a stunned nation, Tojo shot himself in a failed suicide attempt as he was about to be arrested at his modest Tokyo home.
Above: In this 13 August, 2015, file photo, Hidetoshi Tojo, the great-grandson of Hideki Tojo, wartime Japanese Prime Minister, walks after offering a payer at Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo. (Photo via The Associated Press/Eugene Hoshiko, File)
Takazawa, the Nihon University professor specialising in war tribunal issues, found the documents during research at the US archives into other war crimes trials. The documents, he said, are valuable because they officially detail previously little-known facts about what happened and provide a rough location of where the ashes were scattered.
He plans to continue research into other executions. More than 4,000 people were convicted of war crimes in other international tribunals, and about 920 of them were executed.
Tojo and the six others who were hanged were among 28 Japanese wartime leaders tried for war crimes at the 1946-1948 International Military Tribunal for the Far East. Twenty-five were convicted, including 16 sentenced to life in prison, with two getting shorter prison terms. Two others died while on trial and one case was dropped.
Above: Professor Hiroaki Takazawa of Nihon University, points at the name of Hideki Tojo, executed wartime Japanese prime minister in the US official document on a laptop monitor, during an interview with the Associated Press in Chiba, near Tokyo, Tuesday, 8 June, 2021. (Photo via The Associated Press/Koji Sasahara)
In one of the newly revealed documents — dated 23 December, 1948 and carrying a “secret” stamp — US Army Maj. Luther Frierson wrote: “I certify that I received the remains, supervised cremation, and personally scattered the ashes of the following executed war criminals at sea from an Eighth Army liaison plane.”
The entire operation was tense, with US officials extremely careful about not leaving a single speck of ashes behind, apparently to prevent them from being stolen by admiring ultra-nationalists, Takazawa said.
“In addition to their attempt to prevent the remains from being glorified, I think the US military was adamant about not letting the remains return to Japanese territory ... as an ultimate humiliation,” Takazawa said.
Above: This image provided by the US National Archives shows a newly released document dated 23 December, 1948, and carrying a “secret” stamp, US Army Maj. Luther Frierson wrote that he scattered the ashes of seven executed war criminals, including wartime Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, at sea from an army plane. (The US National Archives via The Associated Press)
Above: These image provided by the US National Archives shows two of the newly released documents dated 4 January, 1949, and carrying a “secret” stamp and written by US Army Maj. Luther Frierson. It’s believed to be the first time documents showing the handling of the seven war criminals’ remains have been released publicly, according to the National Institute for Defense Studies and Japan Center for Asian Historical Records. (The US National Archives via The Associated Press)
The documents state that when the cremation was completed, the ovens were “cleared of the remains in their entirety.”
“Special precaution was taken to preclude overlooking even the smallest particles of remains,” Frierson wrote.
Above: Hideki Tojo, Japanese prime minister at the time of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, is seen in the December 1947, photo. The declassified US military documents show the ashes of seven executed war criminals, including wartime Prime Minister Tojo, were scattered at sea off Yokohama from a US army plane. (Photo via The Associated Press/Charles Gorry)
Here’s how the operation went.
At 2.10 am on 23 December, 1948, caskets carrying the bodies of Tojo and the six others were loaded on a 2.5-tonne truck and taken out of the prison after fingerprinting for verification, Frierson wrote in a 4 January, 1949 document.
About an hour and a half later, the motorcade guarded by truckloads of armed soldiers to protect the bodies arrived at a US military graves registration platoon in Yokohama for a final check.
The truck left the area at 7.25 am and arrived at a Yokohama crematorium 30 minutes later. The caskets were unloaded from the truck and placed directly “in the ovens” in 10 minutes, while soldiers guarded the area.
Above: Former Japanese Prime Minister and military leader Hideki Tojo, centre, stands during the sentencing phase of the war crimes trial in Tokyo, on 12 November, 1948. (Photo via The Associated Press/Charles Gorry)
Above: In this view from the judge's bench is the prisoners' dock and former Japanese Prime Minister and military leader Hideki Tojo, centre, during war crimes trial in Tokyo, 13 November, 1948. (Photo via The Associated Press)
The remains were then transported under guard to a nearby airstrip and loaded onto a plane that Frierson boarded. “We proceeded to a point approximately 30 miles over the Pacific Ocean east of Yokohama where I personally scattered the cremated remains over a wide area.”
Today, even without the ashes, bereaved families and conservative Japanese lawmakers such as former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe regularly pay tribute at Tokyo’s Yasukuni Shrine, where the executed war criminals are enshrined with 2.5 million war dead considered “sacred spirits” in the Shinto religion. No remains are enshrined at Yasukuni.
Above: Hideki Tojo, former Japanese prime minister, looks out the window of his house in Tokyo just a few seconds before shooting himself in front of reporters and photographers on 11 September, 1945. (Photo via The Associated Press/Charles Gorry)
After the seven executed war criminals were enshrined there in 1978, Yasukuni has become a flashpoint between Japan and its neighbours China and South Korea, who see the enshrinement as proof of Japan’s lack of remorse over its wartime aggression. Yasukuni also enshrines five other convicted wartime leaders and hundreds of other war criminals.
Above: (LEFT) Capt Beverly M Coleman, left, of Washington, DC, and Lieut Valentine B Deale, right, of Cleveland, both of the American defence staff at the War Crimes Trials in Tokyo, chat with former Japanese Prime Minister and military leader Hideki Tojo, on trial for war crimes, as they discuss the defence at the opening of the trials, on 3 May, 1946. | (RIGHT) Hideki Tojo, former prime minister of Japan and war leader, stands in the dock before the International Military Tribunal in Tokyo on 12 November, 1948, to hear himself sentenced to death by hanging for his war crimes. Behind Tojo is Lieut Col Aubrey S Kenworthy, who is responsible for the prisoners. Military police line the rear rail of the dock. (Photo via The Associated Press/Charles Gorry)
Hidetoshi Tojo said his great-grandfather was consistently made a taboo in postwar Japan, never glorified.
“Everything about my great-grandfather was sealed, including his speeches. Taking that into consideration, I think not preserving the remains was part of the occupation policy,” he said. “I hope to see further revelations about the unknown facts of the past.”
Above: Former Japanese Prime Minister and military leader Hideki Tojo answers "not guilty" during war crimes trial in Tokyo, November 1948. (Photo via The Associated Press)
Bleed image: In this undated photo, former Japan's Prime Minister General Hideki Tojo is shown with medals outside of the Diet. The declassified US military documents show the ashes of seven executed war criminals, including wartime Prime Minister Tojo, were scattered at sea off Yokohama from a US army plane. (Photo via The Associated Press/Charles Gorry)