Sukma Maoist attack: Malaise of Naxal violence lies deep in illegal mining and political funding
Many people put the blame squarely on illegal mining and the desperate desire for politicians and bureaucrats to make money out of this lucrative opportunity that has become a major trigger for Naxal violence due to lack of adequate infrastructure.
On 24 April, Maoist terrorists killed 25 CRPF (Central Reserve Police Force) men in the latest atrocity in Sukma district in the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh. According to a The Indian Express report, the CRPF DIG (Deputy Inspector General) has spoken out to the media on how he kept telling the state government to speed up road development. He bemoans the "terribly slow pace of road construction" in that state.
The road which could have been completed in a couple of days has dragged on for three years. While some point to the state’s indifferent attitude, there are others who tell a different story. They put the blame squarely on illegal mining and the desperate desire for politicians and bureaucrats to make money out of this lucrative opportunity.
Sukma is only one symptom of a malaise that has been corroding India. It is the most unfortunate consequence of political decisions taken to prevent infrastructure building in backward regions. The correlationship between acute poverty, a sense of deprivation and exploitation on the one hand, and the financing of violence through illegal mining for personal and political gains on the other is always around -- in Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Orissa, the North East and Maharashtra. Maharashtra remains the most lucrative among all the states.
Go talk to well-informed residents in Chattisgarh and in Jharkhand. They will tell you, rather discreetly of course, that the main source of funding for Naxalites comes from illegal miners.
And why should illegal miners be interested in funding Naxalites? Well, the primary reason is that they want the Naxalites to prevent the building of roads, schools and other infrastructure that could make access to the areas of mining. If roads come in, people will then follow suit. With schools, hospitals and infrastructure coming in, you will soon have police stations. Worse, you will have people with mobile phones taking video clips of illegal mining. That would compel the authorities to act, and make the entire business of illegal mining that much more difficult. So it is best to prevent the development of infrastructure leading to these areas.
But why should the state government go slow in the building of infrastructure? Well, if circumstantial evidence and anecdotal records are taken into account, the biggest beneficiaries of illegal mining are the politicians themselves.
Illegal mining, it must be understood, is immensely profitable. The best indication of this can be found from the CBI’s own diaries. It notes when investing the Saradha chit fund scam that over Rs 1,000 crore of the ill-gotten money had been invested in activities relating to illegal mining in the North East, a DNA report said. Once again, it is not mere coincidence that the biggest agitations there too are aimed at preventing the building of infrastructure. Further proof of illegal mining in the North East can be found in these Business Insider photographs.
Then take a look at the Justice Shah Commission report which named 14 miners for a CBI enquiry. All were linked to illegal mining in Odisha. Once again, that state too, has seen violent activity against the building of infrastructure.
But Jharkhand and the North East are not the only territories where illegal mining flourishes. The state which accounts for the largest number of registered incidents of illegal mining is Maharashtra – see chart 1. The data which has been culled from statements presented before Lok Sabha paints a damning picture of the state of Maharashtra.
|Illegal mining continues unabated|
|(for all minerals excluding atomic and fuel minerals)|
|No. of illegal mining cases registered||Action taken from April 2012 to Sept 2015)|
|States||2010-11||2011-12||2012-13||2013 -14||2014-15||2015-16**||FIR Lodged (Nos.)||Court Cases Filed (Nos.)||Vehicle Seized (No.)||Fine realized by State Govt. (Rs. Lakh)|
|Andaman & Nicobar||n.r.||n.r.||n.r.||n.r.||n. r.||n. r.||0||0||0||0|
|Assam||n.r.||n.r.||n.r.||n.r.||n. r.||n. r.||0||0||0||0|
|Notes: (a) *Data for Telangana available only after 2015 as it is a newly formed state. Andhra Pradesh data too is only for the bifurcated region after that year; (b) nr= return not received; (c) **Quarter ending Sept. – 2015. #=However the statement given to the Lok Sabha on 9 March 2017 does not give any value either for the amount of illegal mining material seized or the fines collected for some states, especially Maharashtra.|
|Sources: (1) Indian Bureau of Mines, Government of India; (2) Reply to Lok Sabha, on 23 August, 2013, Unstarred Question No. 2391 on illegal mining; (3) Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No. 2329, on 9 May, 2016, on illegal mining; (4) Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No.1503, to be answered on 9th March 2017 on illegal mining|
Illegal mining in Maharashtra takes many forms. One of them is illegal sand mining which is extremely profitable – thanks to the booming construction industry in recent years. All accounts point to the failure of the government to (a) create a reliable source of sand or alternative material for construction, and (b) to create suitable deterrence for violators. Sumaira Abdulali of Awaaz Foundation has documented enough cases for the government to follow up. The government appears to be quite slow in dealing with the culprits.
Once again, not surprisingly, many of the incidents relating to illegal mining occur in territories where Naxalism proliferates. And the first target appears to be resistance to the building of infrastructure. And the biggest beneficiary of illegal mining appears be Maharashtra as the Asia Converge report says. States like Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Goa — which have been pilloried for allowing illegal mining to flourish — are but small fry when compared to the goings on in Maharashtra.
Just look at the data sourced from Lok Sabha in the chart below. For year after year, Maharashtra has accounted for almost 40 percent of the reported incidents of illegal mining in India.
|Paucity of data in March 2017 Lok Sabha replies (excerpts)|
|GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, MINISTRY OF MINES|
|UNSTARRED QUESTION NO.1503 TO BE ANSWERED ON 9TH MARCH, 2017|
|Registered and Illegal Mines|
|No. of mines registered with IBM uinder Rule 45 of MCDR 1988 as on 28.02.2017|
|1503. SHRI ARVIND SAWANT|
|THE MINISTER OF STATE (INDEPENDENT CHARGE) FOR POWER, COAL, NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY AND MINES (SHRI PIYUSH GOYAL)|
|(a): The details of working mines registered with IBM as on 28.02.2017 in the country, state- wise are given at Annexure-I.|
|(b): The Government does not fix or propose to fix lease-wise target for production. The mining lessees themselves submit proposals for production through the mining plans/schemes of mining etc. The Supreme Court has issued orders capping the production of iron ore in the states of Goa and Karnataka. For the state of Goa, 20 million tonne cap has been fixed for the year 2015-16 against which total production from all mines has been reported as 7.155 million tonne. For the state of Karnataka, cap of 25 million tonne for mines falling under Bellary Hospet area and 5 million tonne for mines falling under Chitradurga and Tumkur districts has been fixed against which all the mines have reported production of 17.79 million tonne during 2013-14, 21.10 million tonne during 2014-15 and 23.12 million tonne during 2015-16.|
|(c): The production limit is a derivative of the limits prescribed in the approved mining plan, the Environment Clearance and the Mine Development and Production Agreement as the case may be. The Production limits vary from mine to mine; and these details are not maintained centrally.|
|(d) & (e): The details of instances of illegal mining reported in various parts of the country submitted by the state governments to IBM and the action taken by State Governments during 2014-15 to 2015-16 are given at Annexure-II and Annexure-III.|
|No. of mines registered with IBM uinder Rule 45 of MCDR 1988 as on 28.02.2017|
|State||Mineral||Total no. of registered working mines|
|TOTAL (Iron ore)||237|
|TOTAL (Manganese Ore)||119|
|Maharastra||Other than Fe/ Mn||9|
|Chhattisgarh||Other than Fe/ Mn||86|
|Maharashtra||Other than Fe/ Mn||30|
|TOTAL Other than Fe/ Mn)||1513|
|Source: Indian Bureau of Mines|
|Details of illegal mining for the year 2014-15|
|State||No. of Cases||Quantum of mineral/Ore excavated/st acked/ Transporte d (lakh tonnes)||Value of Mineral /Ore (Rs. Lakhs)||No. of FIR s lodg ed||No. of Co urt cas es file d||Fine realised (Rs. Lakh)|
|Sl. No.||State||No. of Cases||Quantum of mineral/Ore excavated/st acked/ Transporte d (lakh tonnes)||Value of Mineral /Ore (Rs. Lakhs)||No. of FIR s lodg ed||No. of Co urt cas es file d||Fine realised (Rs. Lakh)|
|Resource: Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM) (-) means Information received as (-) in the quarterly returns submitted by the State Governments.|
|Details of illegal mining for the year 2015-16|
|Sl. No.||State||No. of cases||Quantum of mineral/ Ore excavated / stacked / Transpor ted (in lakh tonnes)||Value of Mineral /Ore (Rs.Laks)||No. of FIR lodg ed||No. of Court cases filed||Fine realised (Rs. Lakh)|
|Sl. No.||State||No. of cases||Quantum of mineral/ Ore excavated / stacked / Transpor ted (in lakh tonnes)||Value of Mineral /Ore (Rs.lakhs)||No. of FIR lodg ed||No. of Court cases filed||Fine realised (Rs. Lakh)|
|Resource: Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM)|
|(-) means Information received as (-) in the quarterly returns submitted by the State Governments.|
The table points to another interesting detail. Maharashtra appears to be reluctant to file its illegal mining cases with the courts. It seems as if it would rather have the executive settle the cases, than permit judicial intervention. Just compare Maharashtra’s record with that of neighbouring Madhya Pradesh. Even though Madhya Pradesh had fewer cases of illegal mining, it has filed more FIRs than Maharashtra has.
Then look at the number of cases Madhya Pradesh has filed before the courts. Compared to Maharashtra’s pristine record of ‘zero’, Madhya Pradesh filed 28,830. Clearly, Madhya Pradesh appears to be more willing to see that justice is done.
Finally, look at the fines collected. Gujarat, with fewer incidents of registered illegal mining than Maharashtra, managed to collect more fines. True Maharashtra impounded more vehicles. But it collected less fines. Moreover, there is no record of the impounded vehicles being put up for auction in a transparent manner. All the figures point to a regime more interested in private settlement than a focused effort to stomp out illegal mining.
Then take a look at chart 2 which is from the answers before Lok Sabha in March 2017. The (excerpted) data shows how the official mines are scant in number compared to the incidents of illegal mining activity. Compared to 1,869 official mines, there were 2,033 cases of illegal mining of major minerals, and 94,651 cases of illegal mining of minor minerals. The number of incidents stood revised to 1,867 and 108,569 during 2015-16.
What is interesting is that Maharashtra does not provide any information to the Central government on the value of the output that was illegally mined or confiscated. So much for transparency!
Clearly, it appears that Maharashtra is more unwilling to register cases, and privately settle matters than go before the court and submit values of the material that has been seized. The paltry amount collected as fines appear to corroborate the view that political pressure is used to ensure that illegal mining continues. Even the trucks confiscated don’t appear to have been sold offer through a transparent auction process.
To be fair, Chhattisgarh has tried to stomp out illegal mining more forcefully than Maharashtra has. Watch the number of cases filed before the court. Even the average fines collected per registered case appears to be higher in Chhattisgarh than in Maharashtra. But, clearly, a lot more needs to be done to reduce illegal mining. One way would be to push through with the building of roads and schools and hospitals at a more frantic pace than ever before. Another way would be to increase the quantum of fines by a factor of say ten, to make the cost of non-compliance significantly higher than the cost of compliance.
At the moment, it is possible that the anger brewing over the death of 25 CRPF jawans will propel both the centre and the state to introduce such measures. But on the other, the lure of lucre is so powerful, that (for callous politicians and bureaucrats) even the cost of human lives is a small price to pay. That is horrifying and extremely worrying.
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