articles by Syed Mubin Zehra


Ananga Ranga: The ancient roots of #MeToo rage

The pursuit of pleasure, in the Ananga Ranga, involves the subjugation of women for the pleasure of men.


Female desire in the Mughal dynasty: Daughters broke chastity norms, but had limited agency

Little is written about the Mughal daughters' sexuality in texts representative of that period, but foreigners' travelogues and contemporary literature tell us about their affairs and the fate of their lovers


Ananga-Ranga in the #MeToo era: Subjugation of women who seek pleasure has been the norm since medieval times

Women have no right to either seek or express their pleasure; that renders them, like the woman in the Ananga-Ranga, a shrew to be tamed