Cairo: Egypt is marking the fifth anniversary of the popular uprising that toppled longtime autocrat Hosni Mubarak.
The run-up to the Monday anniversary has seen stepped-up security measures in place in the capital, Cairo, as well as a new wave of arrests and security checks in the city's downtown, an area popular with young, pro-democracy activists.
President Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi, in office since 2014, has since the 2013 overthrow of Islamist president Mohammed Morsi overseen a harsh crackdown that has jailed thousands of Islamists and scores of secular activists.
In speeches over the past two days, el-Sissi has vowed a firm response to any unrest. On Sunday, he paid tribute to the 2011 uprising, saying Egyptians were building a "civilian, modern and developed state that upholds the values of democracy and freedom."