With technology moving ahead at a break neck speed, it’s only human to not be able to play catch up with the zillions of terms and abbreviations that are being thrown around these days. Here’s a quick guide on the most commonly used technology jargons and terminology from the past and the present.
1080p/720p - These are names of video resolutions available in HD. 1080p means the highest resolution available today to consumers. However, higher resolutions have already started trickling into the market. 1080p is made up of video consisting of 1080 lines to make up each frame, which is a high level of detail. 720p is a lower level of HD, and has 720 lines that make up a single video frame. Again, the ‘p’ stands for progressive. There is 1080i as well, that preserves channel bandwidth during transmission. The ‘i’ stands for interlaced.
3G – Third Generation mobile technology will allow users to get a better host of services and connectivity speeds from their service provider. That means download speeds on mobile devices will be faster as well as data and media streaming. 4G is now slowly coming into the spotlight, with better data speeds than 3G.
A-GPS – Assisted Global Positioning System allows for a quicker mode of gathering satellite information via the Internet. It also helps in getting a faster TTFF (time-to-first-fix) for mobile phones. GPS enabled handsets can get information without the use of A-GPS; however, it would take a little longer. In order to use A-GPS you would of course require a working internet service on your mobile handset via your service provider.
Key Lime Pie - Want some?
Android – Developed by Google and part of the Open Handset Alliance now, Android is not just an operating system but a software platform as well. It’s based on the Linux Kernel, which is quite synonymous with free or open source software. The first Android powered handset was HTC’s G1. Android has become extremely popular today, with devices powered by the OS providing stiff competition to Apple's devices. Here’s a small history of the various versions till date.
Donut - Version 1.6
Eclair - Version 2.0/2.1
FroYo - Shortened form of Frozen Yoghurt, Version 2.2
Gingerbread - Version 2.3
Honeycomb - Version 3.0, optimized for tablets
Ice Cream Sandwich – Version 4.0 – a cohesive platform for tablets and smartphones
Jelly Bean and Key Lime Pie will be the next iterations.
Aliasing - Ever wondered why diagonal lines appear jagged rather than straight or smooth in some images? This is because of aliasing, which happens due to the square nature of pixels - the minutest component that any picture is made of.
Aperture / f-stop - When you click a photograph, the lens opens to certain degree so that light can pass through it and onto the camera's sensors or film. The size of this opening is referred to as the 'Aperture', and it directly affects the photo's 'exposure' and depth of field.
Aperture Priority - Aperture Priority (also known as Aperture Value and denoted by Av on the camera), is a mode where the photographer selects an aperture value and the camera decides the shutter speed according to lighting conditions, so that you get optimal results. It's different from 'manual mode' which allows you to set both aperture and shutter speed settings.
Artifacts - In a camera, artifacts are unwanted aberrations caused by sensor, optics or internal image processing algorithms. The most common artifacts are blooming, maze artifacts, chromatic aberrations, moire, jaggies, JPEG compression, noise, and sharpening halos.
Aspect Ratio - This is simply the ratio of a picture's width to its height. There are 2 main aspect ratios namely 4:3 (Letter-box), and 16:9 (Widescreen). HD video is always in 16:9 or more intense ratios like 2.35:1 for movies. Philips has even launched a super-wide screen TV with an aspect ratio of 21:9.
Barrel Distortion - Barrel Distortion is a common form of distortion in wide angle lenses where images tend to get 'spherized' or rounded towards the sides. Such distortion is more prominent in images which have many straight lines.
Uses Bluetooth for data transfer
Bluetooth – A wireless method of communion between devices for either data transfer or remote access and control. Bluetooth profiles include:
EDR – Bluetooth (BT) with Enhanced Data Rate offers faster rates of communication between Bluetooth enabled devices.
A2DP - Advanced Audio Distribution Profile allows Bluetooth enabled media devices to communicate with receivers in Stereo Bluetooth headsets for better audio experiences.
AVRCP - Audio/Video Remote Control Profile allows BT-enabled devices to communicate and control and interface with other BT-enabled devices not just for data transfer but in a more in-depth sense. For example one can control your PC’s media player via Bluetooth from a mobile handset equipped with Bluetooth that also has an AVRCP profile.
CDMA - Code division multiple access is another form of mobile/cellular technology that allows users to use the entire spectrum of frequencies available that are capable of providing better sound and data communication. Some CDMA handsets have built in SIM cards, so specific handset models have been designed for this technology. The range of mobile handsets available with CDMA are a little more limited as compared to GSM. CDMA is a military technology first used during World War II by English allies to foil German attempts at jamming transmissions.
Brightness - Brightness indicates how much light is given out by the screen. It is measured in cd/m2 or candela per square meter. A higher value means more light, which gives a brighter picture.
Burst - The "burst" or "continuous" mode allows you to take multiple shots one after the other. The number of shots taken are measured via fps or frames per second, and are different in different makes and models of cameras. To be a little more technical: the fps decides how many times the shutter releases and an image is processed in a second, defining how many pictures are taken in a short span of time.
CMOS Sensor – Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor are most widely used in mobile handset cameras. The reason for this is these sensors require fewer components (perfect for space constraints) and lesser power so it also reduces the cost.
Colour fringing - Colour fringing is an aberrance caused by the lens used on cameras. It’s more visible on some cameras than others. It’s commonly seen as a blue or purple band lining a bright light source.
Component Video - This has three connectors (usually red, green and blue RCA jacks) that transmit and receive component video signals. The combination of these signals conveys all the picture information.
Composite Video - This is a low quality video connection, and combines the entire video signal into a single cable. Obviously, a lot of picture quality is lost in the process. This is barely used, unless an older piece of equipment has to be used.
Contrast Ratio - Contrast ratio is a measure of a screen’s blackest black and whitest white, which are then compared and stated as a ratio. Higher contrast is always good, as the picture looks more vibrant and lifelike, with better colours.
7-inch Super AMOLED display showcased (image credit engadget.com)
TFT LCD - Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display. TFT LCD type screens are also used in TVs and computer monitors.
QVGA – Quarter Video Graphics Array is 240 x 320 pixels, this is pretty standard for most mobile handsets
VGA - Video Graphics Array is 640 x 480 pixels for handsets with larger displays
WVGA - Wide Video Graphics Array has a pixel resolution of 800 x 480.
OLED - Organic Light-Emitting Diode. Nokia’s popular N85 used this type of display.
AMOLED - Active Matrix OLED. An enhanced version of OLED screens, AMOLED screens used very commonly now.
Super AMOLED - Super AMOLED refers to touchscreens where the layer that detects touch is integrated onto the screen rather than being a layer on top of it. This leads to increased brightness and clarity. The Samsung Galaxy S bears this type of screen.
Retina Display - First used in Apple's iPhone 4, the Retina Display is an IPS LCD screen that packs has a very high pixel density (number of pixels per inch), making it very hard for the naked eye to distinguish between pixels and therefore leading to seemingly higher quality.
There are plenty of other resolutions and technologies that fall in between these but these terms are more frequently used when discussing mobile handset displays.
Depth of Field - The effect generated when the areas on the focal plane (at the focal length) of a camera in a photograph remains in focus (sharp), while other areas stay 'out of focus' (or blurry), is known as Depth of Field. It is enhanced by keeping the aperture small.
Digital Zoom - Unlike optical zoom (which uses a 'zoom lens' that alters its focal length to achieve the desired result), Digital Zoom re-sizes a part of an image digitally in order to fake actually zooming into it.
DLNA - DLNA is short for Digital Living Network Alliance, and it allows one device to communicate with another DLNA enabled device so that you can share content across a network. For example, if your TV has DLNA functionality, you could easily stream music, videos or photos from your networked PC.
EDGE - Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution can also be called EGPRS or Enhanced GPRS and means exactly what it states. It’s one step above GPRS and provides for a little faster browsing and data transfer speeds.
EXIF - When photos are stored on digital cameras, a lot of additional details apart from the image itself are stored on the resulting file. This data (which is also called Metadata) is stored in the "header" of the file and may include everything from when the picture at hand was taken (date, time), shutterspeed, aperture, ISO, and most other settings. This header is usually in the EXIF format (Exchangeable Image File), which was created by JEIDA (Japan Electronic Industry Development Association) as a universally accepted format so that all sorts of imaging devices could access it. This data can be used as a powerful learning tool since you can analyze shots taken by you, check the settings, and decide what settings work best for which type of shots.
Exposure - The amount of light received by the film or sensor of a camera is known as exposure. The exposure of an image can be altered by changing the camera's aperture settings and shutter speed.
Exposure Compensation - Even after selecting an aperture value and shutter speed to fit the lighting of a scene perfectly, an image may be underexposed. In this case the Exposure Compensation (or EV Compensation) found in professional level cameras can be tweaked to fix the exposure.
Focal Length - The focal length of a camera (or an eye for that matter) defines the distance from the lens at which objects remain sharp or in focus. In other words, focal length is the distance (in millimeters - mm) between the optical centre of a lens and the focal point.
Frame Rate - This indicates the number of video frames displayed per second. Video is made up of fast moving still images called frames, and the more frames per sec, the smoother the video.
Full frame sensor - Sensors come in different sizes with point and shoot cameras having the smallest sensors and the larger and more expensive ones having much larger sensors. A full frame sensor is one which is the same size as a 35mm film. A large sensor helps in capturing much more detail and also can capture a much higher resolution image.
Full HD - This is more of a marketing term and means that the number of pixels that make up the screen or video material is 1920 x 1080. This is the highest resolution available to consumers today, and TVs supporting it are the larger more expensive ones.
GSM - Global System for Mobile communications (originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile). To cut a long story very short, it is the technology that allows for mobile handsets to connect to service providers using any model phone or any service provider anywhere in the world. GSM handsets can be used with SIM cards.
GPRS - General Packet Radio Service is universal as a mobile data service (packet) for networks. It provides data rates from 56 up to 114 kbit/s of information when connected to the net via the mobile handset’s browser.
GLONASS - coming soon to Xperia phones
GLONASS – It’s a satellite based positioning system, but is owned and maintained by the Russian Space Forces. GLONASS will come handy when your device is near high rise buildings, and where there is too much crowding out. It has got extremely precise pin pointing capabilities and is much more accurate than GPS, but requires GPS to be switched on to function. If your GPS is off, GLONASS will be off by default.
HD ready - This term can be a little shallow, as it means the display is capable of displaying HD footage. What is really means is that the display can playback a maximum resolution of 1366 x 768, which is one step below Full HD. It is used for smaller screen sizes and entry level models.
HDMI - This stands for High Definition Multimedia Interface, and is the newest and highest quality digital connection for video and audio data. It can pass full HD video and uncompressed audio. HDMI 1.4 is currently used for connectivity.
HDR Photography - HDR is also known as high definition range imaging. HDR photographs are created by clicking the same image at different exposure levels and then merging them together using image manipulation software.
HDCP - It stands for High definition Digital Content Protection. It is a copyright protection system, present in HD receivers and displays. It aims to prevent unauthorized use of copyrighted stuff. Thus if your monitor is not HDCP compliant, you cannot connect HD video content to it. Almost all monitors are HDCP compliant today and if they have an HDMI input, there’s no need to worry.
Histogram - A histogram is a pictorial representation of the tonal distribution in an image. It shows the photographer whether a picture he's clicked has captured all the tonal details or it has areas that have been blown-out due to over-exposure.
Hot Swap Slot – A memory card slot that’s accessible without having to remove the battery or the rear panel. Some handsets do have a memory card slot just under the rear panel so that you won’t need to touch the battery. This could also be termed as a Hot Swap Slot.
HSCSD - High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data implies four times faster data transmission for mobile for users using GSM with rates up to 38.4 kbit/s. It’s basically high speed implementation of standard GSM transfers.
HSDPA - High-Speed Downlink Packet Access is often associated with 3G. It allows networks to provide higher data transfer speeds and capacity. Current HSDPA deployments support down-link speeds of 1.8, 3.6, 7.2 , 14.4 Mbit/s etc.
Interpolation - Interpolation is a method used to increase the number of pixels in a digital image. It basically adds in extra pixels to increase the size of an image intelligently. While it's not as good as actually having an image of higher resolution, it's not as bad as just resizing an image without the addition of extra pixels.
IPS – IPS panels was introduced way back in 2007 to counter the problems of small viewing angles and poor colour reproduction. It’s full form is In Plane Switching. IPS panels offer minute improvements in response times with consistent colours from various viewing angles.
IR – Infra Red is slowly being phased out these days with BT and NFC taking a bigger and more active role in a mobile handset's wireless mode of data transfer and communication. IR means having to keep two handsets aligned with their IR receivers facing each other or ‘in line of sight’ whereas Bluetooth doesn’t have such limitations and is faster as well.
ISO Sensitivity - ISO followed by a number (ISO 80, ISO 120, etc.) was used to denote the sensitivity level of camera film as specified by the International Standard Organization. The term 'ISO' stuck around for digital cameras too, where it’s used for the same purpose - i.e. to specify how sensitive your camera should be to incoming light. At higher ISO settings, your camera's sensor is more receptive towards incoming light, but this also adds more image 'Noise' than lower ISO settings.
Have you jailbroken it?
Jailbreak – Jailbreaking means hacking into the core system of the iPhone so as to allow users to gain access to areas that were otherwise closed off (Unix File system).
LCD TVs - LCD or Liquid Crystal Display uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals to show you the picture on the screen. LCD TVs are more energy efficient than regular CRT TVs and more compact and lightweight as well.
LED TVs - These are Light Emitting Diodes and are also essentially LCD screens, but the difference here is the backlight. The former has an LED backlight instead of the fluorescent backlight that the latter has. These LED TVs are even thinner, look better and consume less power than LCD TVs. They are also more expensive, although the prices have come down in the course of last year.
LTE - Long Term Evolution is the name given to a project associated with 3GPP to help improve and perhaps even standardize future mobile technology. A lot of devices that supported LTE connectivity have been launched and are marketed as 4G-enabled.
Macro mode - A mode in a camera that's optimized for clicking pictures of small objects from up close. This mode is usually denoted by the icon of a flower.
Mail for Exchange – A more up scaled version of Push Mail would be Mail for Exchange. With an application being installed on the handset itself, this service would also download your emails in a real-time environment and also sync and integrate with your Contacts list and Calendar. Much like having MS Outlook on your mobile.
Megapixel – Cameras capture images in pixels and one megapixel is equal to one million pixels. But the higher the megapixel (MP) count doesn’t mean the better the quality of the camera. Quality is strictly subject to the user’s ability at capturing images with the appropriate settings.
Metering - Metering is a technique used by cameras to measure the amount of light in a scene. Using this information, the camera can adjust the necessary parameters such as the aperture size, shutter speed and ISO depending on what mode it is on. Typically, you can set the metering modes to spot, center weighted or partial metering.
MicroSD - MicroSD cards are quite standard across the bar now when it comes to mobile handsets. SD stands for ‘Secure Digital’.
MHL – Mobile High-Definition Link is another industry grade standard for connecting mobile phones to high-definition televisions (HDTVs) and displays. It also has support ffor 1080p video while allowing one to charge the connected device as well.
MMS – Multimedia Messaging Service allows users to send multimedia enabled messages from their handsets in which they can attach full colour images, audio and video clips and of course text to other recipients who have the service activated on their handsets via service providers. Specific settings will be required to send and receive MMS messages.
Multi-Touch – This term is applied to specific usability on touchscreen mobiles that allow for specific actions. For example – the pinch to zoom feature in the Apple iPhone has hardware and software working simultaneously to recognize more than just one point of contact with the screen and responding to the same.
MPEG - MPEG is a name for a group of video engineers who have invented and standardized numerous digital video formats. It compresses data. There is MPEG1 (old) MPEG2 (used in DVDs) and newer MPEG4 (used in DivX etc)
Nav-Pad or D-Pad – This refers to the five way navigation pad that’s usually located under the display and can be used to maneuver through menus and settings. The center key is for selecting options. Nokia also uses what they call a Navi-Wheel that’s similar to the iPod’s Click Wheel. It's soft touch scrolling in a circular motion for moving around a menu system.
NFC - Near Field Communication allows for the wireless communication to take place between mobile devices with a very fixed radius of about four inches. This system is not unlike BT or IR but it does have the limitation of distance.
Noise - The unwanted grainy artifacts in the dark or uniformly colored areas of an image is called 'Noise'. In photographs, this happens due to the same pixels on the camera's sensor being exposed to different levels of light or different temperatures. Noise is considerably higher in images clicked with higher ISO (sensitivity) settings.
Pincushion Distortion - Pincushion is the opposite of the barrel distortion, where an image gets pinched in the middle and lines around the sides curve inwards. This form of distortion is most common with zoom lenses.
Photographic filter - Photography filters are add ons that can be attached to the front of a camera’s lens to enhance or to achieve a particular result. These are typically designed for DSLR cameras but some point and shoot models also have filters available for them.
Podcasts – Podcasts are either video or audio snippets on various topics uploaded to the net via individuals, corporations, radio stations etc. that can be downloaded for playback on a mobile handset via an active internet connection. They’re usually in the form of web feeds.
Proprietary Ports – As the name implies, is the connectivity port for a handsfree, charger or USB that is design-specific to a single company’s brand of handsets. It’s also one of the more irritating aspects in the mobile phone industry. With a standard port, users can simply use wires from other products and vice-versa instead of hunting for a very specific wire that in most cases is only available with the handset manufacturer who would probably charge a premium rate.
Push mail - one of the main reasons why BlackBerry is still popular
Push Mail – This service allows a handset with an active internet connection and support for the same to always download new messages from a designated server linked to your personal email address. What this means is, a real-time download of all incoming emails to your mailbox which you can access from your mobile as well as your PC.
Pwnage – To be Pwned is the same as street slang for ‘Owned’ i.e. to be taken for a ride (in some cases) or to be to be controlled against your will. In the world of the iPhone to have your iPhone Pwned, would mean to jailbreak it and gain access to all areas. An Pwnage tool is required to do just this.
QWERTY – A full QWERTY keypad is a mobile keypad that would allow you to visualize and use this type of mobile input system as well as you would a desktop PC’s keyboard. Each company tries to design their handset's keypad to mimic a PC’s as best as they can.
SureType - or Half QWERTY keypad are essential the same. SureType is more specific to BlackBerrys.
Virtual Keypad - is an On-Screen keypad which is specific to handsets with touchscreens. These are also available in QWERTY, SureType or Half QWERTY as well as normal alphanumeric options.
RAW - RAW is an image format used by high end cameras - that unlike JPEGs - actually captures the 'raw', 'unprocessed', and 'uncompressed' data off the camera's sensors. It's the digital equivalent of the 'negative' image you get on film cameras, which means it’s the highest quality you'll get from a camera, hence it’s the most post-process friendly.
RDS – Radio Data System is a very frequent term attached to the FM radio capabilities in a mobile handset. It’s a method of transmitting small but useful snippets of digital information via the radio’s frequencies that would include Track name, name of the artist etc.
RSS – Just like you’d have an RSS feed for your PC that intimates you on the latest uploads on your favorite blogs, news sites, etc. via active web feeds, the same is now also available on your mobile handset. It essentially implies that you can select your favorite sites (that offer RSS alerts) and get instant updates on what’s the latest on the site.
Series 40 and Series 60 – S40 or S60 are mobile User Interfaces (UI) that work with the Symbian Operating System. S40 and S60 UIs are usually found in some of the lower end Nokia handsets. Nokia now have Belle as well.
Screen Lock or Hold – Most, if not all, touchscreen handsets come equipped with a screen lock button, so settings and features aren’t activated by accident. This is the same as a keypad lock on other non-touchscreen handsets.
Sensors - Just like the human eye, cameras have sensors which detect incoming light and are sensitive to the three primary colors - red, blue and green. Any color on the visual spectrum can be broken down to a mix of variable values of these three primary colors, and conversely these three colors can be used to form any color. Traditionally, cameras used film that had three separate layers, each sensitive to a separate primary color. In digital cameras however, the sensors perceive values digitally and convert them to a universally accepted file format such as JPEG or RAW.
Shutter speed - Shutter speed is the amount of time the mechanical shutter of a camera stays open, so that light can pass through it and on to the sensors or the film. The shutter speed is measured in fractions of a second such as 1/2s, 1/4s, 1/8s, 1/15s, 1/30s, 1/60s, 1/125s, 1/250s, 1/500s, 1/1000s, 1/2000s, 1/4000s, 1/8000s, which basically defines how long the shutter will stay open.
Shutter Priority - Like aperture priority, shutter priority is a mode in prosumer and professional level cameras where the user selects the shutter speed and the camera decides the amount the aperture should open according to the scene at hand. This mode is ideal to capture moving objects where the photographer wishes to have one or more elements of a scene blurry.
Stereo cameras - Pretty much every 3D camera is a stereo camera, which means it has two separate lenses and most of the time two separate sensors.
TrackID – TrackID is a feature found in most Sony Ericsson handsets. It allows users to record a segment of a track being played via loudspeakers or over the radio. This recording is then sent to a server in order to extract information like the name of the song and artist, album etc. to be retrieved. An active internet connection will be required on the handset via a service provider. MusicID is the exact same thing that’s evident in Motorola’s newer music oriented handsets. The app Shazam works in a similar way.
UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is one of the 3G mobile cellular technologies. Also understood as 3GSM in many cases, it essentially implies a sort of hybrid combination of 3G with its speed and GSM with a more globalised standard.
Unlock – Unlocking carrier locked phone implies you would be able to use it as an open GSM handset so that it would no longer be tied to a single carrier. You’d be free to use any service provider's SIM card and services attached to the same without disrupting the use of the handset in any way. In order to Unlock a phone, you’d first need to Jailbreak it.
Up Conversion - Since the advent of HD, there are workarounds to achieve HD from normal SD footage and this is done by up conversion. Simply put, up converters can artificially create higher res images from low res ones. It’s nothing like the real thing, except of course there are some very high end converters sold separately. This process is also known as upscaling.
Incredibly small USB flash drive
USB – Universal Serial Bus is simply a wired standard used for interfacing between a mobile handset and a PC for various purposes be it media and data transfer, backing up of information or even recharging the battery. Mobile phones usually have this in mini-USB and micro-USB variants.
Viewing Angle - LCD screens have a generic problem of viewing angles. When the screen is viewed from an angle, the contrast disappears and the image looks washed out. Manufacturers are continually increasing viewing angles for LCDs, and in recent times they have become as high as 176 degrees. Plasma screens have the best viewing angles, but LED TVs are also catching up.
Viewfinder - The viewfinder is the "window" of a camera that allows you to look through it and preview what a picture would look like before you click it. The optical path of the viewfinder always runs parallel to the lens, so that you can see exactly how much of the scene you can capture in a still.
Vignetting - Another form of distortion found in Zoom lenses, Vignetting occurs when the barrel of the camera becomes visible in the corners of images.
Skype uses VOIP for voice and video calling
VOIP - Voice over Internet Protocol, in the simplest sense, implies the ability to make voice calls over the internet. In a mobile phone it would mean the ability to make a call using Wi-Fi, EDGE or any other internet service the handset permits.
WAP - Wireless Application Protocol is simply the system used by a mobile handset to connect to the internet but it's a little more ‘strictly’ basic when compared to GPRS or EDGE.
W-CDMA - Wideband Code Division Multiple Access is another type of 3G network.
Wi-Fi - is a mode of wireless connectivity but with a stricter sense. It allows for mobile handsets to connect to Wi-Fi routers in a certain area for quick and high speed internet connectivity.
Wi-Fi Direct - This is similar to DLNA, and is basically is a certification from the Wi-Fi Alliance that allows Wi-Fi devices to talk to each other. So if you have a Wi-Fi Direct certified Blu-ray player, you could simply stream media from your networked PC or media centre. This, of course, has serious repercussions for Bluetooth, which is what a lot of home entertainment systems currently use.
WiMAX - Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access is a wireless digital communications system intended for much larger areas as compared to Wi-Fi. It can provide broadband wireless up to 50 km for fixed stations, and 5 - 15 km for mobile stations.
White Balance - Not all light sources that we perceive as 'white' are pure, since they have a certain color temperature that adds a yellow or blue tint to it. The human eye usually compensates for these color variations automatically, but digital cameras don't. In digital cameras, the white balance picks a shade in the image that's closest to white (indiscriminate of what tint it has) and balances the color palette of the image accordingly. So if the light source in the image has a slightly yellow, blue or any other tint, it might disrupt the entire color palette making it look warmer (more yellow-ish), cooler (more blue-ish), dull or more saturated than the actual scene.
Zip - A zipped file consists of compressed data that helps save up on space. It also helps merge different types of data into one single file, making transfer and portability easy for the user.
In case there are any more abbreviations that you want covered, do let us know in the comments section below and we’ll add them to this list.
Published Date: Apr 20, 2012 09:40 am | Updated Date: Apr 20, 2012 09:40 am